Chronology of Chimpanzees Research at Mahale

1965:Beginning of Research by KUAPE (Kyoto University Africa Primatological       
     Expedition / Kyoto University Ape Expedition to Africa)
1966:Provisioning and habituation of K Group chimpanzees
     Discovery of the social unit (unit-group) in chimpanzee society
1968:Provisioning and habituation of M Group chimpanzees
     Discovery of female transfer
1974:First observation of cannibalism and antagonism between unit-groups
1975:Reduction of provisioning to habituate chimpanzees for easy field   
1975-79:Discovery of male coalition strategies
1977:First observation of infanticide 
1979:Ntologi's takeover of alpha status 
1982:Extinction of K Group
1987:Discovery of medicinal plants (Vernonia amygdalina)
     Stopping of provisioning
1989:Discovery of lions as a major predator of chimpanzees
1991:Discovery of group attacks on a young adult male chimpanzee
1991:Kalunde's temporary takeover of alpha status
1992:Ntologi's second takeover of alpha status
1995:Ntologi's loss of alpha status

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